The study of the various components of society and society as a whole is known as Sociology. It studies and analyses the resultant behaviours, institutions of society, and the cultural influences that impact our daily lives and result from general human behaviour.
How does change in time impacts society is what we study in this subject. Therefore, there remains much work to be done by the students to thoroughly understand the concepts in sociology, the related theories and formulate case studies based on them.
Thus, multiple aspects have to be studied by these students, all at once, which makes them go for actual information. Moreover, school-going students and have just started studying sociological concepts need more help with this complex subject.
These definitions and theories may confuse them and make them turn for studies help in homework . We all know that our society is far different from what our father, great-grandfather, and ancestors lived in.
Thus, we infer that society results from a series of changes happening in it that give it a different structure with each passing era. Sociology is all about understanding these changes and the factors leading to them.
The very dynamic nature of society is what makes it complex.
Sociologists use various tools to analyze these very changes in our society over time. These tools are the different perspectives offered:
- The Conflict Perspective:
This perspective is of the view that society is composed of different parts and groups that compete to gain power and resources.
The perspective also considers various social groups in society and explains which social groups have power and how social arrangement benefits these groups.
Karl Marx came up with a theory on this perspective while talking about Industrial Revolution. Post the revolution, two classes of people were formed bourgeoisie (the working class) and the Proletariat (upper class). There always remained a conflict between the two classes to gain resources, and thus there always was a conflict.
Unlike the conflict perspective, functionalism states that society combines interlinked components that operate together to fulfil basic needs.
Herbert Spencer was the leading proponent of this theory. He believed the various parts of society function hand-in-hand to keep society functioning, similarly as the body’s various organs work together to keep the body functioning.
These organs are what we call the various social structures and institutions. Emile Durkheim also gave views on this theory. He stated how societies witness change and survive over time- that all components of a society work together to maintain a stable society.
- Symbolic Interactionism Theory:
George Mead was the leading proponent of this perspective. He stated that individuals ascribe symbolic meanings to each other based on their interactions with others, and then they interact with each other based on these symbolic meanings.
Charles Horton Cooley said that humans take a note of how others interact with them, and then they interpret the reaction positively or negatively. This concept he called that of looking-glass self.
Now before we delve into the in-depth meaning of the various sociological concepts, let us have a brief look at them:
It is the basic unit of study in sociology. Individuals, the social institutions, culture, groups, and their influences on the individuals form a Society.
- Social Institution:
These are the combined set of social norms that preserve essential societal values. They can be government, state, religion, family, marriage, school, economy, etc.
- Sociological Perspective:
This states that the society we live in impacts our nature, attitudes towards others and the society as a whole and our behaviours because of all this. All in all, the sociological perspective states that we are just not individuals but social beings.
- Social Factors:
These factors are a part of society and result in a significant impact on the behaviour of an individual. They also contribute to social change. Multiple components in society can work together to contribute to social change.
- Social Change:
These are the changes in the human interaction pattern in the society resulting from the changes in various other sociological aspects. These changes are usually long-term in nature but maybe sometimes short-term but with the same degree of impact.
- Social Structure:
This is the arrangement of various institutions of society in order of their interaction with each other.
- Social Function:
They preserve societal value and are proof of their efficient functioning. Thus, these acts contribute to the continuous maintenance of the social systems.
- Social Mobility refers to the movement of individuals from one section of society to a different one. The movement can be horizontal (from one place to another) or vertical (from one class to another).
Next, we come to social structure. It has four main components that we need to remember for learning:
Talcott Parsons stated that Social Structure refers to the arrangement of the interrelated institutions, social patterns and agencies, and the statuses and roles that each person assumes in the group.
As the various components and topics of research paper writing have been worked upon in society, type is one of them. The various social structures are as follows:
They study the social network ties between an individual and an organization. Thus, they sub-classify the macro category.
These social structures comprise various institutions of society. These institutions can be class, religion, etc. Thus, they include the social institutions and social stratification and study them as an individual entities in their entirety.
These are the social structures that evaluate the norms that shape individual behaviour. Thus, this studies the individual patterns based on day-to-day interaction with them.
Therefore, these were a few essential points about society and its components to remember for learning.